Under the terms of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, which ended the 1808 … By November 1808, Russian forces had overrun all of Finland. In the early 13th century, Bishop Thomas became the first bishop of Finland. Захаров Г., Русско-шведская война 1808-1809, М., 1940. Sweden also accepted and cared for a host of Finnish "war"-children during World War II. These successes yielded a promotion to Field Marshal for Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor. On the first day of the war they had captured the town of Lovisa and besieged the Swedish sea fortress of Svartholm. Second Swedish Crusade to Finland Area of Tavastians and south-western Finland fall to … Russia would create the Grand Duchy of Finland from the territory obtained from Sweden, and would attach the areas gained from Sweden in the 18th century (so-called Old Finland) to the new Grand Duchy. The basic reason for the plan was to avoid major decisive battles. For example, Helsinki city centre was built during Russian rule. Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. In addition, several new good roads had been built into Finland greatly reducing the earlier dependency on naval support for any large operation in Finland.. After a meager Russian bombardment, Gripenberg agreed to negotiations on 10 March. In 1362, representatives from Finland were called to participate in the elections for king of Sweden. During the Thirty Years' War Sweden gained tracts in Germany as well, including Western Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchy of … However, in the early 20th century Russia tightened its grip on Finland, causing widespread resentment. Before Finland fell under Russian rule in 1809, it had been a part of Sweden for over six centuries. Later medieval legends describe Swedish attempts to conquer and 'Christianize' Finland by the First Swedish Crusade sometime in the mid-1150s. In spite of this, Sweden remained a pillar in its affairs and supported them from time to time depending on their need. Otherwise the degree of urbanization was very low in medieval Finland. The Winter War was fought in the four months following the Soviet Union 's invasion of Finland on November 30, 1939. The level of detail was so great that Russian maps of Finland were in many respects more accurate than their Swedish counterparts. In the end instructions which the new Swedish commander in Finland, General Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor, received from the king were an unsuccessful and open-ended mixture of ideas from these very different plans.  The king, who viewed Napoleon as the Antichrist and Britain as his ally against Napoleon's France, was apprehensive of the system's ruinous consequences for Sweden's maritime commerce. Finland - Finland - Finland under Swedish rule: Birger Jarl decided that a full effort was necessary to bring Finland into the Swedish sphere; in 1249 he led an expedition to Tavastia (now Häme), an area already Christianized. As it happened, the bulk of the Swedish army, including the best units, were kept out of the Finnish War by the king, who reserved them for his plans for conquering either Sjælland or Norway. In southern Finland, armies were to isolate the fortifications and first take control of the whole of southern Finland before advancing further to the north. Finland entered a personal union with the Russian Empire as a grand duchy with extensive autonomy. In the north, the situation was more complicated. After the sea would be clear of ice there would be nothing to prevent Swedish forces from landing troops on the shore. Finland and Sweden share a long history, similar legal systems, and an economic and social model. Sweden was a major power in Europe, with possessions even in northern Germany (Stralsund, Pomerania, occupied by french forces during Napoleons war in Germany). Russian ships continued to arrive from the east but remained within the shallow narrows where the Swedish ships of the line could not reach. Finland and Sweden play a crucial role in the Alliance’s defence plans for the Baltic states and at the 2014 Wales summit the two Nordic countries were given the status of NATO Enhanced Opportunities Partners. Altogether the Swedes had several hundred local men-in-arms. Some of the wilderness settled was traditional hunting and fishing territory of Karelian hunters.  The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the existential threat in the East. Invasion of the Ruhr, 1923. Seemingly aware of the potential military risks, the defense ministers of Nordic nations Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland warned in … Sweden’s History With Finland. Due to bad weather and poor visibility the fleet under Admiral Rudolph Cederström chose to stay relatively far from the coast. On 17 September, the Swedes landed again, this time at Lokalax (Finnish: Lokalahti), while the coastal fleet covering the landing managed to keep the Russians away in the Battle of Palva Sund on 18 September. For both Finland and Sweden, this provided an opportunity to participate in NATO’s working procedures as equals. The troops that landed were forced to withdraw to their ships on 18 September, but landed in Finland again on 26 September. Swedish attempts to land more troops near Turku were stalled by Lieutenant-General Pyotr Bagration's prompt actions. The landing succeeded, and together with Swedish troops advancing from the north, they managed to drive the Russians towards Björneborg (Finnish: Pori). In Eastern Finland, the guerrilla movement was gradually extinguished. During the Russian rule, Finland became a special region developed by order of the Emperor. The Swedish fleet suffered from outbreaks of scurvy and had been unable to maintain the blockade on its own. , Sveaborg (Finnish: Suomenlinna) under Admiral Carl Olof Cronstedt had been well prepared for the war with a garrison of 6,000 men, over 700 cannons, and enough stores to last until the summer of 1808. During the Great Northern War, Russians occupied Finland for eight years (1713–21), and, under the Peace of Uusikaupunki (Nystad) in 1721, Sweden had to cede the southeastern part of Finland with Viipuri as well as the Baltic provinces. An exception was the brigade under Colonel Johan August Sandels, which swiftly advanced towards Kuopio. Kamensky's 11,000-strong corps achieved important victories at Kuortane (1 September) and Salmi (2 September), and although Georg Carl von Döbeln won the Battle of Jutas for Sweden on 13 September, Kamensky gained the most important victory at Oravais on 14 September. The same coin depicts both the pre-war Finnish history, with the withdrawing Swedish crown on the reverse side, and the post-war future of the country, with the Russian eagle symbol on the obverse side. The Russian emperor was, however, now eager to bring hostilities to the territory of Sweden proper, which was certain to bring the war to a victorious end. The landing began on 19 June and was initially successful. Separate wars with the Soviet Union: the Winter War and the Continuation War. The Royal Navy captured 35 Russian ships and burnt 20 others before leaving the Baltic Sea on 28 September 1809.. The Emperor of Russia, Alexander I gave Finland the status of a Grand Duchy. Swedish historians of the 17th century claimed that Finland was conquered by crusades, since this account was considered more glorious. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. This took place three months after the German invasion of Poland that triggered the start of World War II in Europe. Prior to 1809, Sweden had a reputation as one of Europe's most corrupt countries, but the loss in the war created the perception of an existential threat in the East for Sweden and motivated Swedish elites to reform its bureaucracy.The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the exi… Sprengtporten suggested going on to an offensive during the winter since Finland would be mostly isolated when seas were frozen. Also the Swedish southern army of Finland, consisting of roughly 4,000 men under Major General von Vegesack, was moved from Åland to Finland, and landed at Kristinestad in late autumn, joining with von Döbeln's forces. As in the Scandinavian part of the kingdom, a gentry or (lower) nobility consisted of magnates and yeomen who could afford armament for a man and a horse. Wachtmeister's action was only a prelude to the peace negotiations that opened in August and resulted in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn (17 September), in which Sweden ceded the whole of Finland and all of its domains east of the Torne River (the north-eastern parts of what was then called Västerbotten, today Norrbotten) to Russia. The Nordic states, too, hope they would not be facing any assault alone. Finland did not take part in World War I, but nationalism also had an influ… Finland was part of Sweden for almost 700 years from around 1150 until the Finnish War of 1809 that saw Finland becoming an autonomous part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. On Sept. 17, 1809, Sweden lived through one of the darkest days in its history. It was not until 26 September that Prince Dolgorukov (Alekseyev's replacement) managed to join his forces with Tuchkov's, inducing Sandels to retreat. Even the wells were found to be unusable. Borgå (Finnish: Porvoo) was captured on 24 February and Helsingfors (Finnish: Helsinki) on 2 March. During the Russian rule, Finland became a special region developed by order of the Emperor. Russia was seen as the historical hereditary enemy of Sweden. Engagements at Sävar and Ratan proved inconclusive and Kamensky succeeded in neutralizing this belated counter-offensive, following up with a final victory over the Swedes at Piteå. The Swedish plan was to first passively defend and hold on to the fortifications in the southern coast of Finland, in which Sweden had strong garrisons, while the rest of the Swedish army retreated to the north. Capture of the main body of the Swedish archipelago fleet had resulted in a real advantage to the Russians since it allowed them to gain superiority in the narrow waters of the Finnish archipelago where large ships of the line could not operate. When Finland gained its independence, the Ålanders began to hope for reunion with Sweden… , According to two 2015 studies by political scientists Jan Teorell and Bo Rothstein, Sweden's loss in the Finnish War led to reforms of the Swedish bureaucracy. The Finns rose up in guerrilla fighting as far east as Frederikshamn (Finnish: Hamina) within the Old Finland province of Russia. , Skirmishes and landings continued in the Finnish archipelago from late summer into autumn. As a result of the Great Northern War (Treaty of Nystad, 1721), Sweden had lost Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, and part of Karelia to Russia. About 9,500 volunteer Swedish soldiers fought alongside Finnish soldiers against the Soviet Union. Yet French and British naval forces had already been using the Swedish island of Gotland as a base of operations against Russia in the Baltic Sea. With this objective in mind, Kamensky suggested a daring plan, whereby the Russian army was to cross the frozen Gulf of Bothnia at two locations: one unit was to march from Vasa towards Umeå and the other from Åbo to the Åland Islands and thence towards the vicinity of Stockholm. Director: Pekka Parikka | Stars: Taneli Mäkelä, Vesa Vierikko, Timo Torikka, Heikki Paavilainen. After the Russians were driven from Central Finland, their forces stretched along the line of Pori — Tampere — Mikkeli. The situation was problematic for Sweden, since it once again faced both Denmark and Russia as potential enemies requiring the Swedes to split their forces. Most of the laws from the time of the Swedish rule remained in force. There is much to learn from that experience, but it does not suggest that Russia will start a war against Sweden or Finland, as Saakashvili contends, in order to boost Putin’s popularity. The Russians, however, were able to send reinforcements to the area which were, in addition to being numerically superior, both far better trained and equipped than the peasants and militia the Swedes had raised. In 1495–1497, a war between Sweden and Russia was fought. Having received considerable reinforcements, their numbers increased to 55,000, as opposed to the 36,000 estimated for Sweden. During his rule, the Swedish church was reformed. Failure to block the Russians led the king to relieve Cederström of his duties and replace him with Commander Henrik Johan Nauckhoff. Although Knorring was urged to execute the plan as quickly as possible, he regarded the idea as unrealistic and procrastinated until March, when the emperor dispatched the War Minister Arakcheyev to Finland in order to pressure Knorring into action before joining the army himself. On 20 August, two British ships of the line (HMS Implacable and Centaur) joined the Swedish fleet. Slash and burn cultivation finally gave way to field cultivation during the nineteenth century, even in the eastern parts of the country. The motif on the coin is the passage of Finland from Sweden to Russia. Attempts to stop the Russians deeper in the archipelago were also unsuccessful. Hostilities thus continued until May, when Shuvalov finally reached Umeå, where he was succeeded by Kamensky. The war of 1808-09 resulted in Sweden being forced to relinquish Finland and the Åland Islands to Russia, whereby Swedish-speaking Åland became part of the Grand Duchy of Finland. Following the policies of the Reformation, in 1551 Mikael Agricola, bishop of Åbo, published his translation of the New Testament into the Finnish language. Finland was part of Sweden for almost 700 years from around 1150 until the Finnish War of 1809 that saw Finland becoming an autonomous part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. The number of Finnish-Swedish connections and the quality of cooperation in most areas of the government is unique when compared to other international relations involving both countries. In Sweden: The Age of Freedom (1718–72) War with Russia in 1741–43 led to a temporary Russian occupation of Finland and to a further loss of Finnish provinces northwest of St. Petersburg.  Since then, Antti Rinne also made his first official visit to Estonia but Juha Sipilä and Sanna Marin both made their first official visit to Sweden. , Sweden performed several small landings along the coast near Kristinestad (Finnish: Kristiinankaupunki) and Kaskö (Finnish: Kaskinen) and managed to raise local men to oppose the Russians. When news of Kulnev's incursion spread to the Swedish capital, the new king sent an embassy to Knorring, proposing a truce. Odds were very much against the Swedes as the Russians had nearly one hundred coastal ships in the Finnish archipelago, against which Sweden could deploy only 7 galleys and 30 gun sloops. The combat in Finland from 1939 through 1945 is considered part of the Second World War. During the 1580s, this resulted in a bloody guerrilla warfare between the Finnish settlers and Karelians in some regions, especially in Ostrobothnia. The Grand Duchy of Finland was to retain the Gustavian constitution of 1772 with only slight modifications until 1919. During the Cold War, Finland was a border state between the Soviet Union and the West. In 1809 Sweden lost Finland to Russia after the Finnish War. But nobody has asked the real question that matters. Six days later, the czar arrived in Åbo and, on learning about the truce, not only revoked Knorring's signature but named Barclay de Tolly as the new Commander-in-Chief. Upon approaching the coast on 21 June, Cederström learned that the Russians had already passed the cape some time earlier. The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Russian: Финляндская война, Finnish: Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809. The Swedish Voluntary Air Force also provided 25 aircraft that destroyed twelve Soviet aircraft while only losing six planes with only two t… However, owing to bad weather, only a portion of the troops that had been intended to participate in the landing actually reached the Finnish coast, and this resulted in another withdrawal on 28 September.. The Swedish battlefleet which had been expelling Russians from Gotland was ordered to blockade the Hangö Peninsula and reached the cape on 10 June. Sweden did not become actively involved in … The fortress surrendered on 6 May 1808 after prolonged negotiations with the Russians as the commanding officer Carl Olof Cronstedt and his council believed that resistance was futile. Finland was returned to Sweden, while the majority of Russia's conquests (Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia) were ceded to the tsardom. Between 1523 and Sweden's final war with Russia in 1809, a state of war had existed between these two countries for 67 out of those 292 years. , The plan involved using the series of fortifications built after 1790 as staging grounds for the Russian advances into Finland. Four days later, Bagration's corps of 17,000 men occupied the strategic Åland Islands, while Kulnev led a vanguard further across the frozen sea that on 19 March reached the Swedish shore within 70 km from Stockholm. In spite of this, Sweden remained a pillar in its affairs and … Total British control of the Gulf of Finland was a large obstacle to the Russian supply network and required sizable garrisons to be posted all along the Finnish coast. Under Colonel Carl Johan Adlercreutz the Swedish army counter-attacked at Siikajoki and began to halt the Russian offensive. Referring to the treaties of 1780 and 1800, the emperor demanded that Gustav Adolf close the Baltic Sea to all foreign warships. When revolution broke out in Russia in 1917, Finland declared independenc… , In memory of the 200th anniversary of the Finnish War, all Swedish, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Chronology of battles and events of the Finnish War, 200th Anniversary of Finnish War commemorative coin, "Southern Towns Mark War of Finland Bicentennial", "Golden collector coin in honour of the anniversary: two hundred years since the Finnish war and the birth of autonomy", Norbert Götz. These were concentrated in the southern part of Finland. However, the British still had acce… For example, the Swedish archipelago fleet's ships that been docked in Åbo (nearly 50 gun sloops) were torched to prevent their capture. While the garrison was 700 men strong, only a third of the men had actually functioning weapons, while most of the fortress' guns had no carriages. A peace treaty (the Treaty of Teusina) with Russia in 1595 moved the border of Finland further to the east and north, very roughly where the modern border lies. Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Also known as the Hats' Russian War. The king had thought it impossible to defend Finland should the enemy attack during the winter and chose largely to ignore the repeated warnings of the Russian threat he received in early 1808. It gained complete independence in 1917. Finland and Sweden have participated in in almost every NATO-mission since the end of the Cold War, from Bosnia to Afghanistan, causing some observers to note they are more reliable than some NATO member states. A third unit was to advance into Sweden by land, going around the gulf and through the town of Torneå (Finnish: Tornio). The emperor refused to ratify the truce and replaced Buxhoeveden with a new commander-in-chief, Bogdan von Knorring, in December of that year. Most of the fortifications in Finland had not been completed and those that were completed had mostly fallen into neglect and disrepair. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the new Swedish royal house, in 1818. During the Crimean War, Sweden was on the verge of joining Britain and France with the ambition of retaking Finland when the war ended in 1856. Finland and Sweden share a long history, similar legal systems, and an economic and social model. The fortress surrendered to the Russians on 18 March after a siege that had lasted roughly a month, with just one man having been wounded in action. In 1917 Finland got independence, during World War I. Sweden recognized the independence, but required Åland Islands to become part of Sweden. The Hats attempted to make Sweden a great economic power, but… Read More; 1788–1790. On February 21, 1808, 24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border in Ahvenkoski and took the town of Lovisa (Finnish: Loviisa). СПБ, 1849. For wars during the Swedish rule (1249–1809), see list of wars involving Sweden. The fortress had fallen into disrepair and lacked both adequate food and ammunition stores. Defenses were strong enough to prevent the Russians from trying to storm the fortress by surprise. The matter of German troop transfer through Finland and Sweden during World War II was one of the more controversial aspects of modern Nordic history beside Finland's co-belligerence with Nazi Germany in the Continuation War, and the export of Swedish iron ore during World War II. During World War II Sweden declared its neutrality, but in the Winter war it declared itself non-belligerent and supported Finland's cause to a limited extent. 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